Tag Archives: scope

Reader Q&A: The WBS and Cost

I wanted to share an email question I received through a Twitter contact of mine and my response.? Feel free to chip in with your own insights!

photo by Tracy O

photo by Tracy O


I hope you don’t mind me coming to you for advise and help with Project Management. I have this one question which I keep pondering on. In what way would you say that monitoring, planning and controlling project cost with a budget and organizing and planning a project using the WBS help or support one another?


My response:

Glad we connected on Twitter!? In my projects, the WBS is one of the key things that helps me with planning and monitoring costs.? The WBS is a prerequisite.? When I have a WBS, I can look at it and see where I should have charge codes set up for project staff, and where I should be reporting project costs.? Usually there is a specific level of detail that is relevant to various people.? The sponsor may want to see costs at level 3 of the WBS, and I may be interested in a little more detail at level 4, and the other project managers who work with me may be looking at level 5.? You may have specific stakeholders who only care about level 3 cost reporting for a particular element of the project, etc.

When putting estimates together, it’s important to first have a clear idea of what your scope is, and much of that comes from the WBS.? Bucket your basis of estimates this way, schedule, etc.? The iron triangle means that scope, cost, and schedule are integrated.

Monitoring and controlling your projects through status reports, EVM, etc.?? can really only done effectively by keeping in lock-step with your WBS structure.

Add your thoughts by leaving a comment for our reader below!

Successful Projects: It’s Not Rocket Science

Project Management is not rocket science

Project Management is not rocket science

There is no worse person to be than the project manager at the end of a failed project. As an IT project manager, I have experienced that feeling and I can tell you it’s not nice. IT projects are particularly difficult to manage. In fact there really aren’t any IT projects, just projects that have elements of IT in them.

The trouble with these projects is that often you are doing something that hasn’t been done before, is unproven or cutting edge. Customers expect a good result not excuses, even though these projects are frequently a journey into the unknown. If we take the construction industry, building a new bridge for instance, we have been building bridges for hundreds of years and know how to do it. We understand how things are going to happen, in what order and the expected result. This is rarely the case with IT projects.

Avoiding the common pitfalls of IT project management is not rocket science, it is simply a case of taking some sensible measures. Identified here are five killer mistakes of project management:

Who Owns the Project?

The Mistake:

The nature of projects is change and change often encounters resistance. People don’t like change so they need to know it is necessary and what benefits it will bring. In order for a project to deliver change it needs the backing of senior management. Without it the project will proceed very slowly. The sponsor (senior management) is the person that drives the change forward and the project is the mechanism for change. A project without support from senior management will struggle.

The Solution:

Make sure you have the top down backing from senior management. There must be direct communication from the sponsor to the stakeholders. The message must be, “we are serious, this thing is going to happen so you are either with us or you are not” and beware those that are not.

Be careful as project manager to make sure the sponsor does not take the project over and become the de-facto project manager.

Getting Users Involved

The Mistake:

Lack of user input and involvement is the recipe for a bad project. This can either be because of the “we know what you want” mentality from the IT department or lack of interest from the customer. Either way it must be avoided.

The Solution:

The IT department must take time to understand the customers requirements before proposing any technical solution. Often IT is blinded by the latest, newest thing available and try to shoehorn the requirements into it. On the other hand, customers must devote the time and effort necessary to ensure a successful project by interacting with the IT department and making sure all requirements have been fully defined. Ensure you have spoken to all stakeholders to gathered their requirements and that they continue to work with you for the duration of the project.

Stopping Scope Creep

The Mistake:

Scope creep is the cause of more project failures than anything else. Not knowing exactly what a project is aiming to deliver or setting off in a fit of enthusiasm but little else, is a recipe for failure.

The Solution:

Ensure that the business case, requirements and scope are clearly defined and documented. Make sure the stakeholders understand them and sign them off. Stick rigidly to the scope and if changes are required then put them through a change management process where they are documented, justified and then agreed.

Managing Expectations

The Mistake:

Often there is an expectation that IT is like a magic wand you wave and suddenly a miracle occurs. During a technology project expectations can inflate to a ridiculous degree. It is the role of the project manager to manage expectations to a sensible level.

The Solution:

One way to avoid this is to break a project into smaller pieces or phases. I equate this to a sausage machine, where you feed in the raw material at one end and out it comes as small, perfectly formed, packages or sausages at the other end. The same can happen with IT projects where you take small packages of requirements and push them through the machine, producing several deliverables over the life of a project. This way you manage expectations by making frequent deliveries to demonstrate what the technology can really deliver. This approach ensures the project delivers to the customers expectations by giving them early visibility of what you are building.

Understanding the Lingo

The Mistake:

Have you ever stood next to a group of IT professionals and wondered what on earth they were talking about. It is like a whole new language and to non-IT people it often is. The pitfall comes when the customer and IT think they are talking the same language when in fact they are not. This leads to a problem when the IT department delivers what they understood the customer wanted and it turns out to be something different.

The Solution:

Communication problems are the hardest to resolve as often it is only looking back that the problem is identified. Regular communication and a close working relationship with the customer will help. What you really need is a person with a foot in both camps. Someone who understands the business and the IT equally well. If you can identify this person make sure you keep hold of them, they are hugely valuable. If you are unable to find this person, the next best option is to have two people, one from the business and one from IT. By working closely together and sharing information they can minimise any communication problems.


In 1995 The Standish Group surveyed IT executive managers for their opinions about why projects succeed. The three major reasons given that a project will succeed are user involvement, executive management support, and a clear statement of requirements. Concentrating on these three aspects alone will give your project a good chance of success.

Don’t become the victim of a failed project, put measures in place that will ensure your success. After all it’s not rocket science!

Read more about IT Project Management

Project Termination Modes

Project Termination

Project Termination

All projects have fixed start date and completion date. Project termination is a process that occurs whether a project is successful or not. PMI strongly recommends to follow this process for each project. The? major aim is to document the “lessons learned” and store it in the organizational process assets.There are various business, technical and political reasons to terminate a project. In this post I will focus on the different ways to close or terminate a project. They are as follows,

  1. Extinction
  2. Addition
  3. Integration
  4. Starvation

The following are the possible reasons for which a project may be terminated

by Extinction

  • The project has successfully completed scope and the client has accepted it.
  • It has been superseded by the external developments like technological advancement, market crisis etc
  • It has failed to achieve it’s goal.
  • It has no longer support from the Senior Management.

It is also sometimes referred to as “termination by murder“. The important point to notice is that all project activity ceases in this kind of termination.

by Addition

  • The project is a major success. It becomes the formal part of the parent organization.

The transition or? transfer of the resources such as the project personnel, materials and equipment to the newly created unit within the parent? organization.

by Integration

  • The project is successfully completed. The? project product is integrated to the operations of the client.

This is the most common mode and most complex operation. The resources are? released? and? disturbuted in the parent organization.

by Starvation

  • The project is terminated by budget decrement.
  • It is also known as? withdrawal of “life support”.

The reason of this termination is generally to shadow the failure of non-accomplishment of the goals. This can save face of the senior management and avoid embarrassment.

Project Management: A Developer Speaks Out

Brandon Ching wrote this awesome post about how a developer views project management. I really thought it was well done and deserving of comment and consideration.

Brandon takes the refreshing “glass is half-full” view of project management by highlighting some of the reasons why developers should want good project managers to work with. Some of the key things cited are:

  • Keeping developers on task and meeting customer requirements
  • Dealing with high-level scope and customer requirements so the developers can focus on modules of functionality and specialize in their art form

As a developer-turned-PM, I can relate. I found that I enjoyed the PM portions of the work more than coding?so here I am now.

I?ll add that I love SCRUM too for software development projects?a great technique that gets around the problem of hounding developers for % complete?the war room daily SCRUM, 15 minutes only with 3 questions for each developer. I wrote about it and how it can be used on traditionally managed projects too. If you are interested, see here.

Again, great work Brandon!